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{\footnotesize December 2005}
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\begin{document}
\begin{centre}
\bf \Large
Polynomials (S)
\end{centre}
\subsection*{Theory}
\begin{enumerate}
\it{Definition} A polynomial is an expression of the form
$p(x)=a_nx^n+a_{n-1}x^{n-1}+\cdots+a_0$. $a_n\neq0$ unless $p(x)$
is the zero polynomial. The coefficients $a_i$ can be from
$\R,\C,\Z,\Q,\Z_n$ etc, if the coefficients are from $R$, we say
this is a polynomial (in $x$) over $R$. We call $a_n$ the leading
coefficient, say the \textit{degree} of $p(x)$ is $n$, and if
$a_n=1$, we call the polynomial \textit{monic}.
\it{Division Algorithm} For polynomials $f$, $g$, there exist
unique polynomials $q$, $r$ such that $f=qg+r$ and $\deg r<\deg g$
or $r=0$. ($p=p(x)$)
\it{Factor Theorem} Suppose that $p(a)=0.$ When this occurs we say
$a$ is a \textit{root} of $p(x)$. Then $p(x)=(x-a)q(x)$ for some
polynomial $q(x)$. If $p(x)=(x-a)^mq(x)$ for some $q(x)$ with
$q(a)\neq 0$, then we say $a$ is a root of multiplicity $m$. If
$f(x)\mid g(x)$ then all roots of $f$ are automatically roots of
$g$.
\it{Rational Root Theorem} If
$p(x)=a_nx^n+a_{n-1}x^{n-1}+\cdots+a_0$ is a polynomial with
integer coefficients and $p/q$ is a rational root written in
reduced form then $p|a_0$ and $q|a_n$.
\it{Vieta's Theorem} This gives the expressions for the
coefficients of a polynomial in terms of its roots, which you
should know.
\it{Lagrange Interpolation Formula} One of the most important
tools in polynomial problems is the fact that if two polynomials
of degree at most $n$ agree at $n+1$ (or an infinite) number of
places, then the polynomials are identical. This is equivalent to
the statement that a polynomial of degree $n$ can have at most $n$
roots. The Lagrange Interpolation Formula gives an explicit form
for the degree $n$ polynomial through $n+1$ predetermined points
$(a_0,b_0),(a_1,b_1),\ldots,(a_n,b_n)$.
\it{Fundamental Theorem of Algebra} Every nonconstant polynomial
with coefficients in $\C$ has a root (in $\C$).
\it{Corollory} A polynomial of degree $n$ over $\C$ has exactly
$n$ roots counted according to multiplicity.
\it{Irreducible Polynomials} A polynomial is said to be
\textit{irreducible} if it cannot be factored into two
polynomials of smaller degree. Over $\Z$, $\Q$, $\R$, $\C$ and
$\Z_p$ where $p$ is a prime, every polynomial can be factored
uniquely into irreducibles up to a constant factor.
\it{Eisenstein's Criterion} Let
$f(x)=a_nx^n+a_{n-1}x^{n-1}+\cdots+a_0$ be a polynomial with
integer coefficients. Suppose that there exists a prime $p$ such
that
\begin{enumerate}
\item $p\notdivide a_n$
\item $p\mid\! a_i \ \mbox{ for }\ 0\leq i1$ is an
integer. Prove that $f(x)$ cannot be expressed as a product of two
nonconstant polynomials with integer coefficients.
\item (1999 Canada) If $a$, $b$, $c$ are the roots of $x^3-x-1=0$,
compute $$\frac{1+a}{1-a}+\frac{1+b}{1-b}+\frac{1+c}{1-c}.$$
\item (1997 China) Let $00$. Let $n$ be the number of distinct
integers $k$ such that $(P(k))^2=1$. Prove that $n\leq d+2.$
\item (1991 AUO) Let $a_1,a_2,\ldots,a_{100}$,
$b_1,b_2,\ldots,b_{100}$ be distinct real numbers. A table of
$100\times 100$ numbers is filled so that the number $a_i+b_j$ is
written down on the intersection of the $i$'th row with the $j$'th
column. Given, that in each column the product of all numbers is
equal to 1, prove that in each row the product of all numbers is
equal to $-1$.
\item (1999 Czech-Slovak) Find all natural numbers $k$ for which
the following assertion holds: If $F(x)$ is a polynomial with
integer coefficients which satisfies $0\leq F(c)\leq k$ for all
$c\in\{0,1,\ldots,k+1\}$ then $F(0)=F(1)=\cdots=F(k+1).$
\item (2002 IMO Q3) Find all pairs of integers $m,n\geq 3$ such
that there exist infinitely many positive integers $a$ for which
$$\frac{a^m+a-1}{a^n+a^2-1}$$ is an integer.
\item (2001 APMO Q4) A point in the plane with a cartesian
coordinate system is called a \textit{mixed point} if one of its
coordinates is rational and the other one is irrational. Find all
polynomials with real coefficients such that their graphs do not
contain any mixed point.
\item (1975 USAMO) Let $P(x)$ be a polynomial of degree $n$, so
that $P(k)=k/(k+1)$ for $k=0,1,\ldots n$. Find $P(n+1)$.
\item (1997 UKMO) Find the number of polynomials of degree 5 with
distinct coefficients from the set $\{1,2,\ldots,9\}$ that are
divisible by $x^2-x+1$.
\item Let $P(x)=a_0x^n+a_1x^{n-1}+\cdots+a_n$ be a nonzero
polynomial with integer coefficients such that $P(r)=P(s)=0$ for
some integers $r$ and $s$, with $0n$ for
every positive integer $n$. Consider $x_1=1,x_2=p(x_1),\ldots$. We
know that, for any positive integer $N$, there exists a term of
the sequence divisible by $N$. Prove that $p(x)=x+1$.
\end{enumerate}
\end{document}